Some detailed information about volcanoes for the video update from 26 Feb 2019

Mar 11, 2017
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#1
I was watching the update video and noticed the terrain was being focused on icy climates and volcanoes and that a thing to possibly be added was a volcano being struck by lightning. For scientific and informational purposes i wanted to inform Em-8ER some more about volcanoes and ash that they produce according to National Geographic Volcanic Ash:

"Volcanic ash is made of tiny fragments of jagged rock, minerals, and volcanic glass. Unlike the soft ash created by burning wood, volcanic ash is hard, abrasive, and does not dissolve in water. Generally, particles of volcanic ash are 2 millimeters (.08 inches) across or smaller.

Coarse particles of volcanic ash look and feel like grains of sand, while very fine particles are powdery. Particles are sometimes called tephra—which actually refers to all solid material ejected by volcanoes. Ash is a product of explosive volcanic eruptions. When gases inside a volcano's magma chamber expand, they violently push molten rock (magma) up and out of the volcano.

The force of these explosions shatters and propels the liquid rock into the air. In the air, magma cools and solidifies into volcanic rock and glass fragments. Eruptions can also shatter the solid rock of the magma chamber and volcanic mountain itself. These rock fragments can mix with the solidified lava fragments in the air and create an ash cloud.

Wind can carry small volcanic ash particles great distances. Ash has been found thousands of kilometers away from an eruption site. The smaller the particle, the further the wind will carry it. The 2008 eruption of Chaitén in Chile produced an ash cloud that blew 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) across Patagonia to Argentina, reaching both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

Volcanic ash deposits tend to be thicker and have larger particles closer to the eruption site. As distance from the volcano increases, the deposit tends to thin out. The 1994 double eruption of Vulcan and Tavurvur in Papua New Guinea covered the nearby city of Rabaul in a layer of ash 75 centimeters (about 2 feet) deep, while areas closer to the volcanoes were buried under 150-213 centimeters (5-7 feet) of ash.

In addition to shooting volcanic ash into the atmosphere, an explosive eruption can create an avalanche of ash, volcanic gases, and rock, called a pyroclastic flow. These incredibly fast avalanches of volcanic debris can be impossible for humans to outrun. Pyroclastic flows are capable of razing buildings and uprooting trees.

Volcanic Ash Impacts

Plumes of volcanic ash can spread over large areas of sky, turning daylight into complete darkness and drastically reducing visibility.

(Specifically this next paragraph)

These enormous and menacing clouds are often accompanied by thunder and lightning. Volcanic lightning is a unique phenomenon and scientists continue to debate the way it works. Many scientists think that the sheer energy of a volcanic explosion charges its ash particles with electricity. Positively charged particles meet up with negatively charged particles, either in the cooler atmosphere or in the volcanic debris itself. Lightning bolts then occur as a means of balancing these charge distributions.

Volcanic ash and gases can sometimes reach the stratosphere, the upper layer in Earth’s atmosphere. This volcanic debris can reflect incoming solar radiation and absorb outgoing land radiation, leading to a cooling of the Earth’s temperature.

In extreme cases, these “volcanic winters” can affect weather patterns across the globe. The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, Indonesia, the largest eruption in recorded history, ejected an estimated 150 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) of debris into the air. The average global temperature cooled by as much as 3° Celsius (5.4° Fahrenheit), causing extreme weather around the world for a period of three years. As a result of Mount Tambora’s volcanic ash, North America and Europe experienced the “Year Without a Summer” in 1816. This year was characterized by widespread crop failure, deadly famine, and disease.

Airborne volcanic ash is especially dangerous to moving aircraft. The small, abrasive particles of rock and glass can melt inside an airplane engine and solidify on the turbine blades—causing the engine to stall. Air traffic controllers take special precautions when volcanic ash is present. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced an ash cloud that forced the cancelation of roughly 100,000 flights and affected 7 million passengers, costing the aviation industry an estimated $2.6 billion.

Volcanic ash can impact the infrastructure of entire communities and regions. Ash can enter and disrupt the functioning of machinery found in power supply, water supply, sewage treatment, and communication facilities. Heavy ash fall can also inhibit road and rail traffic and damage vehicles.

When mixed with rainfall, volcanic ash turns into a heavy, cement-like sludge that is able to collapse roofs. In 1991, Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines at the same time that a massive tropical storm wreaked havoc in the area. Heavy rains mixed with the ash fall, collapsing the roofs of houses, schools, businesses, and hospitals in three different provinces.

Ash also poses a threat to ecosystems, including people and animals. Carbon dioxide and fluorine, gases that can be toxic to humans, can collect in volcanic ash. The resulting ash fall can lead to crop failure, animal death and deformity, and human illness. Ash’s abrasive particles can scratch the surface of the skin and eyes, causing discomfort and inflammation.

If inhaled, volcanic ash can cause breathing problems and damage the lungs. Inhaling large amounts of ash and volcanic gases can cause a person to suffocate. Suffocation is the most common cause of death from a volcano. "

I know this is a lot of information but it may help with ideas on the environment and how it could affect players or play this information was copied from the following link: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/volcanic-ash/
which has some pictures and further information.
 

Drakin5

Deepscanner
Dec 15, 2016
636
1,143
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#2
One thing that many game developers fail to understand is the heat coming off from lava. Just because you’re not touching the lava doesn’t mean you’re not boned from the start. Volcanic eruptions even small is depicted nothing more than slight ground shaking and the release of magma. Maybe some palette and lighting change but that’s it. Basically, less dangerous than what should be in real life. Not to mention the aftermath that doesn’t just last overnight.
 
Mar 11, 2017
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#3
I was wanting to create this post because in my past experience and even just studying a little about volcanoes its often found that an eruption can create its own atmospheric storms and any eruption of any size has many affects on the surrounding area. This can be used to an advantage in video games where imagination and creativity are the limits tampered by software and viability of running the effects on differing levels of hardware. This information and some further delving into science of the regions trying to be created could be used to create some fun features and places. Such as a volcano that is very active with a large ash storm surrounding it that has random updrafts from the heat and then pockets of cold air in between from the drastic cooling of the climate and such an area would be fun to fly around in and explore. Lightning could be added in if it wasn't to much of a drag on graphics and this could also then be used as a danger in the area and kind of as a way of creating an exciting environment to enjoy. I would love to be able to fly through an lightning storm created by a volcano over a frozen wasteland among ash clouds while viewing the lava shows and listening to the ice snapping and crackling as it comes into contact with the drastic temperatures of the lava.
 
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Pandagnome

Kaiju Slayer
Happy Kaiju
Jul 27, 2016
3,599
3,978
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Island of Tofu
mechadrive.com
#5
an avalanche of ash, volcanic gases, and rock, called a pyroclastic flow. These incredibly fast avalanches of volcanic debris can be impossible for humans to outrun.
Imagine moving up to the volcano to get a better over view spying on the kaiju, and doing some rock collecting or just having one of those curiosity to explore further. Suddenly an Avalanche!!! you run and hop in the mech and make your get away. The kaiju have spotted you and the avalanche is right on your heels!!

A big explosion from the volcano erupts and you glide away ah HA not this time avalanche :cool:
However a kaiju fires a grappling hook bringing you back to land and the avalanche cooks you both :mad::eek:

Beware the kaiju + natural diasters!
 

EvilKitten

Well-Known Member
Ark Liege
Jul 26, 2016
633
1,184
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#6
Don't forget that the volcano's in Em-8er will not be exactly the same as the ones here on earth. Em-8er volcano's will be extremely high in sulfur compounds and not basalt. I haven't done any major research but just saying it may change the nature of the volcano's/eruptions quite a bit.
 

EvilKitten

Well-Known Member
Ark Liege
Jul 26, 2016
633
1,184
93
#9
Couple things I can think of off the top of my head. Em-8er has a temperature below which Sulfur Dioxide freezes. This is a temperature at which a human body would freeze in a matter of seconds. With a lower basalt and higher Sulfur Dioxide content combined with the planetary environment, any lava flows can be a much lower temperature than those on earth, additionally they will be a lot less viscous (more runny) on exiting a vent. HOWEVER they will quickly cool off in the intense cold and so will not travel very far before solidifying. This means that volcanic vents will trend towards much sharper peaks as the lava will be solid before it can travel far.

Beyond that I wouldn't expect a lot of giant clouds, again with a high sulfer dioxide content on a world where sulfur dioxide freezes, expect lots of gas that quickly particulates (acidic sulfur dioxide rain) out before it can spread very far.

There is also the fact that with the planet crust being mostly made out of sulfur dioxide powder/ice, any mountains will quickly flatten out from their own weight as ice is not a perfect solid and tends to flow over time. So any vents which have stopped will quickly (on an earth scale) flatten out while the new vents will be very steep.

In short I would figurere such a terrain would end up being very steep terrain with lots of plum vents (think Stalagmites with lava at the top) and a heavy rain of acidic sulfur dioxide anytime an eruption happens.

That's just some stuff I can think of off the top of my head.
 
Mar 11, 2017
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#11
Couple things I can think of off the top of my head. Em-8er has a temperature below which Sulfur Dioxide freezes. This is a temperature at which a human body would freeze in a matter of seconds. With a lower basalt and higher Sulfur Dioxide content combined with the planetary environment, any lava flows can be a much lower temperature than those on earth, additionally they will be a lot less viscous (more runny) on exiting a vent. HOWEVER they will quickly cool off in the intense cold and so will not travel very far before solidifying. This means that volcanic vents will trend towards much sharper peaks as the lava will be solid before it can travel far.

Beyond that I wouldn't expect a lot of giant clouds, again with a high sulfer dioxide content on a world where sulfur dioxide freezes, expect lots of gas that quickly particulates (acidic sulfur dioxide rain) out before it can spread very far.

There is also the fact that with the planet crust being mostly made out of sulfur dioxide powder/ice, any mountains will quickly flatten out from their own weight as ice is not a perfect solid and tends to flow over time. So any vents which have stopped will quickly (on an earth scale) flatten out while the new vents will be very steep.

In short I would figurere such a terrain would end up being very steep terrain with lots of plum vents (think Stalagmites with lava at the top) and a heavy rain of acidic sulfur dioxide anytime an eruption happens.

That's just some stuff I can think of off the top of my head.
 
Mar 11, 2017
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#12
So something else this brings up is that if theres a peak collapsing then all of that force has to go somewhere and either the collapse would happen in an outward explosion after the peak sealed itself and built up too much pressure or it would have an inward collapse that could sinkhole into the lava and create pitfall like traps. If it sink holed that would also create an updraft of warmer air that could be used to fly higher while gliding or flying in the atmosphere.
 
Mar 11, 2017
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#13
also in certain areas where theres underground water pockets being heated by the magma and or lava there could be geyser systems and thermal features like hot springs that develop over time and create colorful water features